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Managing integration: Trans- & Inter-disciplinary science approaches

As the interlinkages between our society and its environment become more apparent, so the notion of integration (across multiple social perspectives and fields of knowledge) becomes more important. So we have a growing family of integrated management initiatives (integrated watershed management - IWM; integrated coastal management - ICM; etc.). Similarly we seek to back these up in science by moving beyond our more traditional disciplinary and multidisciplinary approaches, and exploring interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary approaches. The links on this page point first to the emerging resources that are documenting the lessons from integration in practice, and the second to the growing body of theory that points to the need for these new science approaches (sustainability science, post-normal science, Mode II science, etc.).

Science integration in practice

New forms of science integration

Over the past 20 years there have been a number of parallel trends for more inclusive inquiry and knowledge production approaches (all calling for more collaborative science, interdisciplinarity, and adaptive management/learning). These include: